Materials science and engineering also focus on new ways to synthesize and process materials, from bulk samples to ultrathin films to epitaxial heterostructures to nanocrystals.
This involves techniques such as UHV sputtering; molecular beam epitaxy; plasma etching; laser ablation, chemistry, and recrystallization; and other nonequilibrium processes. The widespread use of new materials and the new uses of existing materials in electronics, communications, and computers have intensified the demand for a systematic approach to the problem of relating properties to structure and have necessitated a multidisciplinary approach.
Materials science and solid-state science use techniques such as transport measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ferromagnetic resonance, inelastic light scattering, luminescence, and nonlinear optics to understand electrical, optical, and magnetic properties on a quantum mechanical level.
Silicon Based Thin Film Solar Cells
Such methods are used to investigate exciting new types of structures, such as two-dimensional electron gases in semiconductor heterostructures, two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides, superconductors, and semiconductor surfaces and nanocrystals. Current research activities in the materials science and engineering program at Columbia focus on thin films, electronic and magnetic materials, materials at high pressures, materials for advanced batteries, and the structure of materials.
Specific topics under investigation include interfaces, stresses, and grain boundaries in thin films; lattice defects and electrical properties of metals and semiconductors; laser processing and ultrarapid solidification of thin films; nucleation in condensed systems; magnetic and electrical properties of semiconductors and metals; synthesis of nanocrystals, two-dimensional materials, and nanotechnology-related materials; deposition, in situ characterization, electronic testing, and ultrafast spectroscopy of magnetoelectronic ultrathin films and heterostructures.
In addition, there is research in first-principles electronic structure computation. The research activities in solid-state science and engineering are described later in this section. Facilities exist within the Materials Science Laboratory, which also serves as shared facilities for Materials Structural and Mechanical Characterization. Facilities and research opportunities also exist within the inter- departmental Columbia Nanotechnology Initiative CNI. More specialized equipment exists in individual research groups in solid state engineering and materials science and engineering.
The research facilities in solid-state science and engineering are listed in the sections for each host department. Nurmikko, Nobuo Otsuka 5. Kesan, Subramanian S.
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